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?r? Aurobindo, original name Aurobindo Ghose, Aurobindo also spelled Aravinda   (born Aug. 15, 1872, Calcutta, India—died Dec. 5, 1950, Pondicherry), seer, poet, and Indian nationalist who originated the philosophy of cosmic salvation through spiritual evolution.

Aurobindo’s education began in a Christian convent school in Darjeeling, and then, still a boy, he was sent to England for further schooling. He entered the University of Cambridge, where he became proficient in two classical and three modern European languages. After returning to India in 1892, he took various administrative and professorial posts in Baroda and Calcutta, and then turned to his native culture and began the serious study of Yoga and Indian languages, including classical Sanskrit.

The years from 1902 to 1910 were stormy ones for Aurobindo, as he embarked on a course of action to free India from the British raj (rule). As a result of his political activities and revolutionary literary efforts, he was imprisoned in 1908. Two years later he fled British India to refuge in the French colony of Pondichéry (modern Pondicherry) in southeastern India, where he devoted himself for the rest of his life solely to the development of his unique philosophy. There he founded an ashram (retreat) as an international cultural centre for spiritual development, attracting students from all over the world.

According to Aurobindo’s theory of cosmic salvation, the paths to union with Brahman are two-way streets, or channels: enlightenment comes from above (thesis), while the spiritual mind (supermind) strives through yogic illumination to reach upward from below (antithesis). When these two forces blend, a gnostic individual is created (synthesis). This yogic illumination transcends both reason and intuition and eventually leads to the freeing of the individual from the bonds of individuality, and, by extension, all mankind will eventually achieve moksha (liberation). Thus, Aurobindo created a dialectic mode of salvation not only for the individual but for all mankind.

His voluminous, complex, and sometimes chaotic literary output includes philosophical pondering, poetry, plays, and other works. Among his works are The Life Divine (1940), The Human Cycle (1949), The Ideal of Human Unity (1949), On the Veda (1956), Collected Poems and Plays (1942), Essays on the Gita (1928), The Synthesis of Yoga (1948), and Savitri: A Legend and a Symbol (1950).

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